There is no trans-historical or transcultural discipline that is adequate for summing up “the history of religion and violence.” Some force this premise into reality by having a very flexible definition of “religion,” while others are even more sophisticated, allowing violence to be “National” when it suits their interest, while their enemies motives are due to “irrational backward religions.” This kind of non sequitur and gymnastic logic serves to demonize religion without contaminating their own activities
We are not Africans because we are born in Africa, we are Africans because Africa is born in us. In our contemporary times, we have to accept that identities and terminologies change as circumstances change: There is no such thing as a trans-historical African identity. Therefore, in Africa’s ancient history the term ‘African’ as an identity would have had no meaning; people defined themselves as members of kingdoms, religions, and ethnic groups. Blackness, however is a term imposed at the moment of conquest by the apex oppressors — never by Africans themselves
All spiritual systems practiced traditionally by Africans, whether native or mainstream, are organized religions. The rituals of Voodoo, Orisha, Serer, etc are all highly organized, and without exception function in a communal setting. They all have degrees of a priest class, ceremony, sacrifice, libation, religious holidays, creation stories, saints, divine systems of punishment and reward.
In Somalia war and famine seem to be the default. The fragile pastoral and agricultural activities have been brought almost to a standstill by the civil war. Economic activity depends mostly on international organizations and on remittances from the Diaspora abroad.Read more